Prostate gland (the synonym of which is "prostate") is an important component of male reproductive system, which is responsible for many functions, ranging from synthesis of men's sexual hormone (testosterone) to pleasant sensations during orgasm. Therefore the diagnosis “prostate gland cancer” (prostate cancer) is a serious challenge for a man, both from physiological and psychological point of view.
Prostate cancer in more than 99 % cases develops from ferruterouscells of prostate gland, which form semen, and it is called “adenocarcinoma”. The main risk factor of the occurrence of prostate gland cancer is age. The probability to fall ill with prostate cancer sharply increases after 50 years of age,the majority of cases of prostate cancer are men over 65.
In some families there are multiple cases of prostate cancer – which makes it possible to assume the existence of the inheritance factor.
Complex diagnostics of prostate cancer: Computer tomography with in-outamplification, МRТwith in-outamplification, MR-petography, paracentetic biopsy with cytological, histological and immunohistochemicalexamination of the level of prostatic specific antigene (PSA) of blood, transrectal ultrasound examination of prostate, manualrectal examination of prostate, ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity, uroflometry.
For local forms (1-2 stage, without metastases) of cancer the following kinds of treatment are used:
- Removal of prostate gland (radical prostatectomy), prostate is removed together with seminal glands.
- Remote radial therapy. Irradiation of prostate and lymph nodes located nearby with the dose of about 40 Gray; later tumor irradiation increases up to 70 Gray.
- HIFU-therapy.Ablation of tumors by means of the focused high-intensity ultrasound.
- Brachytherapy or interstitial radial therapy.Grains with radioactive preparations are inserted in the tumor.
- Monotherapy withantiandrogens.The least popular kind of treatment.
At the 3rd and 4th stage with metastases the following kinds of treatment areused:
- At the 3rd and 4th stage with metastases the following kinds of treatment areused: Remote radial therapy + hormonal therapy. Irradiation of the prostate andthe neighboring lymph nodes combined with thegonadotrophin releasing hormone (Firmagon) (antagonists of gonadoliberin) antagonists therapy.
- Monotherapy with antagonists of the gonadotrophin releasing hormone. Lifelong prescription.
For a long time prostate cancer was treated by means of surgical intervention — radical prostatectomy. It is a big operation; most often it is young men with a good general health condition who undergo it. In most cases radical surgical treatment of prostate cancer leads to such by-effects as impotence and/or uroclepsia. The improvement of radial therapy techniques has led to the emergence of alternatives to traditional surgical intervention, namely to radio surgical treatment of prostate cancer with the use of CyberKnife. CyberKnife is used in the case of the following pathologies: prostate cancer of the 1st and 2ndstages, treatment of metastatic damages of skeleton bones.
Neglected cancer forms can be only treated symptomatically or palliatively; the use of antiandrogenic and radial therapy can improve the quality of life and longevity of patients. The radio surgical treatment CyberKnifemade for treating of prostatecancer, is painless and bloodless and it does minimum harm to healthy tissues - which considerably reduces the period of rehabilitation after operation. It excludes by-effects which frequently become the reason of conscious refusal of men from prostate cancer treatment by means of operative intervention.
Also radio surgical treatment of prostate cancer can be used for patients who havesomatically heavy condition, for whom operative intervention is counter-indicative. Thus, treatment of prostate cancer becomes accessible to more patients. The absence of the need to use narcosis in the course of treatment by means of radio surgical systemCyberKnife also gives hope of recovery for patients who have contra-indications to general anesthesia.