Kidney cancer (renal cancer) is a malignant formation of nephritic tissue (parenchyma) which makes 3 % of all malignant tumors.
Very often the disease has no symptoms, irrespective of the tumor size, prevalence and clinical displays. The majority of patients show deterioration of the general health condition which is displayed by general weakness, appetite loss, growing thin, "causeless" rise in body temperature - most often in the evening, arterial hypertensia, increased disposition to sweating,polycythemia, anemia, hypercalcemia, nephritic dysfunction.
Local symptoms include the classical triad: haematuria (blood in urine), pain in the affected kidney area and palpated tumor. The triad is observed in about 15 % of patients. Most often not the triad is displayed but one or two symptoms in a certain combination. Haematuria can be short-term, during one-two urinations, it can last for several hours, days, it can discontinue independently and to emerge againafter a certain time, even after several years.
Pain in the kidney affected by tumor is observed in 60 – 70 % of patients. It can be displayed by discomfort, feeling of heaviness in the lumbar area, sometimes by a typical nephritic colic.
The kidney affected with tumor is usually palpatedin the case of the new formation’s considerable size. This symptom is typical for tumor, however it is the case quite seldom and in very neglected cases.
Diagnostics of kidney cancer (kidney carcinoma):
Most often kidney tumor is revealed in the process of ultrasound examination carried out in connection withother diseases.
- Computer tomography of abdominal cavity is the main method of diagnostics
- Complete blood test, including oncological markers
- Intravenous pyelogram
- Diagnostics of liver functions
- Nephritic artheriography
- Calcium in blood serum
- Ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity and kidneys
- Urine cytology
- Urine test
The following diagnostics is carried out to determine the cancer spread:
- Magnetic and resonant tomography (МRТ) of abdominal cavity
- Scanning of skeleton bones
- Chest radiography
- Positron emission tomography (PEТ, screening)
Surgical treatment is still effective as kidney cancer treatment. The scale of operative intervention depends on a tumor stage and varies from radical nephrectomy to organ-preserving operations.
The methods of kidney cancer treatment are very different nowadays, both in terms of the way of treatment and of its results. The radio surgical system CyberKnifemakes it possible to treat kidney cancer by means of tumor removal painlessly, with high accuracy and in localized manner. Treatment usually takes 1-5 days, 30-40 minutes a day. The high and exact dose of irradiation per session by means of CyberKnife system can bring fantastic results. CyberKnifeis the only radio surgical system in the world which as of today can irradiate tumor with maximum accuracy – less than 0.5 mm -during only one procedure. As a result,the efficiency of kidney cancer treatment, also in the case of metastases in the backbone and in the whole body, increases immensely. Radio surgical treatment by means of CyberKnife system is called "operation", but it is not quite so. Actually such treatment is bloodless, it is a painless radio surgical operation aimed at the removal of tumor and kidney metastases.