Colon cancer (colorectal cancer) is a malignant tumor which grows from the mucous membrane covering the colon walls. Large intestine cancer tends to get more frequent, and death rate from it increases. Out of various parts of the large intestine, cancer most often occurs in rectum, less often– in sigma, blind gut, hepatic and splenic flexure of the transverse colon.
Colon cancer (colorectal cancer) is a malignant tumor which grows from the mucous membrane covering the colon walls. Large intestine cancer tends to get more frequent, and death rate from it increases. Out of various parts of the large intestine, cancer most often occurs in rectum, less often– in sigma, blind gut, hepatic and splenic flexure of the transverse colon. Malignant new formations of small intestines occur extremely seldom. Development of intestines cancer is more typical of elderly people and it seldom occurs in people under forty years of age, but after forty the risk of disease increases every year.
Pre cancer conditions: - - adenomas, villous adenoma, polyps, intestines polyposis, chronic ulcerative colitis, chronic rectal fistul.
Occurrence of colon cancer is promoted by:
- character of nutrition - prevalence of meat, fatty and farinaceous dishesin the diet, not enough plant products;
- colon diseases: nonspecific ulcer, Crone disease, benignant tumors of the colon mucous;
- genetic predisposition – FAP.
- nt alcohol intake, smoking, inactive way of life.
However it is considered that the foods containing vegetative cellulose (vegetables, fruit), vitamins A and C,groats and cereals, as well as fish and poultry prevent the disease development.
Intestines cancer symptoms
Clinical symptoms of rectum cancer and the degree of their display are determined by the tumor size and localization, invasion degree, growth form, and presence or absence of metastases. Early symptoms of colon cancer are the following: presence of blood and slime in defecation, change of habitual character of defecation and tenesmus (spurious defecation urge). When the tumor becomes large enough there appear the so-called secondary symptoms caused by the narrowing of bowel lumen, which include stomach swelling, spastic pains, nausea and vomiting, as well as constipations which can alternate with diarrhea. At the later stages, when the cancer spreads onto the gastrointestinal wall and neighboring organs, along with the above mentioned symptoms there appear others as well. General symptoms which include weight loss, weakness, work capacity decrease, fatigue, anemia, earthy complexion etc. accompany only a generalizedtumoral process.
- Irrigoscopy - X-ray of intestines preceded by its filling with contrast substance by means of enema;
- Proctoscopy–rectum examination by means of a special device (rectal tube);
- Colonoscopy - large intestineexamination by means of a special device – colonoscope
In the course of proctoscopy or colonoscopy the doctor can make biopsy - take a small piece of gut for detailed examination by microscope. This procedure is practically painless. Biopsy is especially necessary for the patients who have intestines polyps.
Prophylaxis of colon cancer
It is necessary to include more vegetables and fruit in the diet, to fightconstipation, in due time to treat inflammatory diseases of the colon (colitis). It is very important to eliminate in proper time colon polyps, not to let the intestines cancer develop.
Treatment of intestines cancer
Radical treatment of this type of cancer consists in carrying out of operative intervention with the removal of the affected part and the neighboring parts of the intestines and, as a rule, also of the neighboring lymph nodes - since cancer cells sprout in them. The intervention scope depends on the tumor localization, the degree of the process prevalence, presence or absence of metastases etc. Thanks to the achievements in the field of surgical equipment and the improvement of surgical methods, now fewer and fewer patients need the colic stoma application (bringing of the gut to the front belly wall). In most cases, two opened ends of the gut are connected after the intestinal blockage is removed.
Sometimes, with the aim of destruction of the remaining cancer cells, after the operation a course of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy is prescribed. In the case of inoperable forms of colon cancer,in order to facilitate the symptoms, palliative operations are performed, such as application of shunts or colic stoma.